1. Neurosurg Rev. Jul;32(3); discussion doi: /s Epub May The Canon of Medicine (Kitab al-Qanun fi al-tibb) by Ibn Sina (the illuminated opening of the 4th book). A rare complete copy made in Iran probably at the begin. A historical approach could help in the detection of some viewpoints that cannot be paid attention to or signified by a purely medical one.

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If the experiment is carried out on the bodies of [other animals] it is possible that it might fail for two reasons: That part, which enters the liver to keep its vitality and functions, becomes softer, warmer and sensibly wet, and in its composition the softness of air and vapor of blood dominate.

To ensure gentle catheterisation, Ibn Sina designed catheters with rounded, firm tips and many side holes from the skin of certain marine and other animals. The gums are not full of teeth. George Sarton wrote in the Introduction to the History of Science: As long as [the soul] is in the heart, it is quite warm, with the nature of fire, and the softness of bile is dominant.

It fell out of favour in university syllabi, although it was still being taught as background literature as late as in Padua.

National Library of Medicine. The period up to the limit of growth of the body to the beginning of adult life. The Bodleian Library has thirteen copies of the work, all incomplete, as well as Judaeo-Arabic copies.

Besides an extensive collection of experiences from Islamic sources and outside, the Canon is marvelously original in that it contains. There are only four because something cannot be simultaneously hotter and colder or drier and moister.


The Canon of Medicine

He also made valuable discoveries in ailments now grouped under psychosomatic medicine. Then, that part which goes to the brain to keep it vital and functioning, becomes colder and wetter, and in its composition the serous softness and phlegm vapor dominate. If some of the drugs are inadequate with regard to heat when compared to the coldness of an illness, they will not be able to effect a cure.


Some are “compound members” such as the heart, the liver, and the brain. This section describes blood and compares its healthy states with its unhealthy states. The Canon of Medicine of Avicenna.

Al Qanun Fi Al Tibb القانُون فِي الطِّب

He contrasts Galen’s view that the brain is the “chief seat of sentient life” with Aristotle’s view that the heart is the source of all the body’s faculties, saying that if physicians considered the matter carefully they would agree with Aristotle that the heart was the ultimate source of all the faculties, even if for example the brain is where the rational faculty manifests itself.

William Osler described the Canon as “the most famous medical textbook ever written”, noting that it remained “a medical bible for a longer time than any other work. Ibn Sina drawing by A. Accessed November 8, He received his education in the nearby city of Bukhara, the renowned capital of the great Samanids.

Ibn Sina lived the full active life of a scholar, a fio medical practitioner and even a political advisor and vizier to his patron princes. He also categorizes these into vital organs and auxiliary organs. Wikimedia Commons has media related to The Canon of Medicine. One of these aspects, however, has not been very widely discussed, xl his views on education. Book 2 the Materia Medica of the Canon alphabetically lists about “simple” medical substances that were used at the time.

The Canon says, for example, that females are colder and more moist. Book 1 is made up of six theses which give a general description of medicine in general, the cosmic elements that make up the cosmos and the human body, the mutual interaction of elements temperamentsfluids of the body humoursqanuun anatomy, and physiology.

This page was last edited on 14 Decemberat Avicenna treated spinal deformities using the reduction techniques introduced by Greek physician Hippocrates. One should be aware that the intention is something else: In the fourth period, both vigor and intelligence decline.

The elements we experience are mixed with small amounts of other elements and are therefore not the pure elemental substances. If that is not the case, the effect is then accidental, because qanuj that occur naturally are always or mostly consistent.


Medicine is described as “hot” or “cold”, not based upon its actual temperature but with regard to how it relates to the temperament of the human body. This action represents both the direct and the accidental benefit of the drug. In the thesis on General Physiology or “The Faculties of the Body”, Avicenna separates life into three different categories: Retrieved 19 December The Rise of Experimental Biology: Medical scholars started to use the Canon in the 13th century, while university courses implemented the text from the 14th century onwards.

He has given clear description of Ankylostomiasis, Dracunculus medinensis, Mediastinitis, Phthisis, Measles, Smallpox etc.

Ibn Sina’s The Canon of Medicine | Muslim Heritage

The Evolution Of Modern Medicine. Ibn Sina was a prolific writer; he wrote even under trying circumstances such as in prison. Avicenna says that the hand, especially the palm and the tip of the index finger, is the most sensitive of all and attuned to tactile contact. Only after this may we wholly understand tiibb old medical texts.

What does Al-Qanun Fi Al-Tibb (the Canon of Medicine) say on head injuries?

He also gave his opinion of the effectiveness ffil ineffectiveness of some remedies, and gave details of where particular ingredients came from and how they were prepared. Dar al-Shifa Hospital and patients inside. We still have to look at the mental powers or faculties that motivate this body.

In other projects Wikimedia Commons.

tibbb The Canon also adopted the ancient theory of Four Temperaments and extended it to encompass “emotional aspects, mental capacity, moral attitudes, self-awareness, movements and dreams”. His Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb Canon of Medicineis an immense encyclopedia of medical knowledge that embraces anatomy, physiology, pathology and pharmacopoeia.

Avicenna divides the beginning stage of life in the following table, according to Oskar Cameron Gruner’s edition of the Canon of Medicine: