It also supplies a dye, wood etc, and is occasionally used for food. The plant is cultivated for its medicinal uses in DR Congo, and is also used in shelterbelts and. Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Alchornea. Names of Alchornea in various languages of the world are also given. Alchornea Cordifolia. The ethanolic leaf extract of Alchornea cordifolia (Schum. and Thonn.) Müll. Arg ( Euphorbiaceae), a widely used traditional medicinal plant was assessed for.
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January 27, ; Accepted date: March 04, ; Published date: J Anal Bioanal Tech 8: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, cotdifolia, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The ethanolic leaf extract of Alchornea cordifolia Schum. Arg Euphorbiaceaea widely used traditional medicinal plant was assessed for possible sub-acute toxicity in Cordifoloa albino rats.
The rats were randomly distributed into five groups of four animals each. Normal saline was administered to the control group according to their body weights. The experimental animals were observed for another 14 days before the termination of the experiment. The weight of the animals was recorded daily throughout the duration of the study.
The number of deaths in any group was recorded. All the surviving animals were sacrificed after alcornea days. Blood samples were alchorhea for biochemical and haematological analysis.
Selected organs of the animals i. Administration of Alchornea cordifolia 0. Histology of liver and kidney at dose levels up to 0. However, liver sections of mice treated with 0. These results suggest that Alchornea cordifolia is relatively non-toxic but has the alchorneaa to induce hepatic injury at high doses. Alchornea cordifolia Schum and Thonn. Alchornea is pantropical and comprises about 60 species of which 6 occur in tropical Africa.
Alchornea cordifolia known as Christmas Bush is a shrub or small tree found abundantly along the coastal area of the West African Sub-region. This plant is used for treatment of a variety of diseases by traditional medical practitioners in Nigeria. Its different parts had been used to treat diarrhoea, wounds, sores, and cuts [ 1 ]. It is antibacterial [ 2 ], spasmolytic [ 3 ], anti-inflammatory [ 4 ], anti-diarrhoeal [ 5 ], antioxidant [ 6 ] and antimicrobial [ 7 ] agent.
These diverse pharmacological actions have been linked to several active principles isolated from the leaves, root, and stem of A. In spite of the wide traditional use of A. This study is therefore aimed at investigating the phytochemical composition and in vivo anti-malarial effect of ethanol and aqueous extracts of the leaves, stem bark and roots crodifolia the plant. The plant was identified corxifolia Mr. The apparently healthy parts of the plant leaves, root and stem bark were harvested in large quantities and air-dried for about 3 weeks to a constant weight cordifolja shade in the laboratory.
The dried samples were ground into powdered form using an electric grinder Saisho W and stored separately.
Using maceration method, g of each powdered sample was soaked separately in ml each of distilled water and ethanol of analytical grade respectively, for 72 hour. Each sample solution cordfolia filtered using Whatman No. Male albino rats of about 8 weeks old, weighing g were used for the experiment.
The animals were housed in gauzed cages in the animal house behind the Biochemistry Department, Federal University of Technology, Owerri. Water and feed were made freely available for them and they were allowed to acclimatize for two weeks prior to commencement of experiment.
The male albino rats were divided into five groups, each consisting of four animals and fasted overnight prior to treatment.
Groups B, C, D and E were treated intraperitoneally with daily doses of ethanolic leaf extract, i. The ethanolic leaf extract chosen for this study showed the highest antimalarial activity in a previous study . All the animals were monitored for another 14 days. The animals were monitored closely for clinical signs of toxicity; i. Body weight changes were also recorded daily through-out the 28 days of the study. At the end of the 28 days of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed by mild ether anesthesia.
Blood samples were collected from the animals by cardiac puncture and dispersed into ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid EDTA tubes for haematological studies and plain tubes for serum used for evaluation of biochemical parameters.
The animal organs i. The haematological parameters were analysed with the aid of an automated analyser Sysmex XE, Canada. To both tubes, 0. Absorbance was taken at nm against reagent blank after 5 min.
The method that exploits the use of diazotized sulphanilic acid as described by Pearlman and Lee [ 11 ] and Zoppi et al. The Biuret method as alchornez by Gornall et al. Test tubes were prepared and labelled as blank, standard and sample. Then, to all test tubes 1. Absorbance of sample and standard were read against reagent blank at nm and alchorneea concentration calculated.
This was determined as described by Doumas et al. Briefly, test tubes were prepared and labelled blank, standard and sample. Absorbance of sample and standard were read against blank at nm and albumin concentration calculated. A histological study was carried out with the liver and kidney samples from different groups of the experimental animals.
This was carried out to crosscheck the results that cordifolix obtained from biochemical assay. The method used was that described by Okoro [ 16 ].
Figure 1 shows the effect of ethanol extract of A.
Effect of ethanol extract of A,chornea cordifolia on the body weights of rats. Effect of ethanolic extract of Alchorneacordifoliaon the serum biochemical parameters of rats treated with different doses of the extract.
Antimicrobial spectrum of Alchornea cordifolia leaf extract.
Results of the study indicate that the administration of A. Effect of ethanolic extract of Alchorneacordifoliaon haematological indices in rats treated for two weeks.
Effect of different doses of leaf ethanolic extract of A. There were no lesions observed in the liver tissues of rats treated with the ethanol leaf extract of A. On the other hand, no lesions were observed in the kidney tissue sections of both the treated and control animals Plates Histopathology of Liver section of rats not treated normal control XStain: Histopathology of Kidney section of rats not treated normal control Xfor 14 days XStain: The slight increase in body weight after the day treatment can be ascribed to normal growth of the animals over the period.
Food and water intake were normal and no deaths occurred. The relative weights of vital organs of animals did not show significant differences compared to the vehicle-treated control with no evidence of organ swelling, atrophy or hypertrophy in the animals. These observations indicate that the treatment had no effect on the general condition and functional behaviour of the animals.
The haematopoetic system is an important index of physiological and pathological status in man and animals [ 17 ] and a sensitive target for toxic compounds [ 18 ] since it is initially exposed to a high concentration of toxic agents. This has a predictive value for toxicity in humans and animals and therefore analysis of blood is relevant to risk evaluation [ 19 ].
However, a dose dependent increase in neutrophils NEU was observed. Neutrophils interact with foreign compounds and microorganisms and destroy them by the process of phagocytosis.
They are also known to be involved in the pathology of various inflammatory conditions. It is possible that the increase in neutrophils in the present study is related to the slight liver cell injury observed in the histopathological studies.
The markers of renal function, urea and creatinine, were assessed based on reported kidney toxicity associated with the use of medicinal plants.
These parameters were not affected in treated animals. Alchornea cordifolia has been shown to contain flavonoids [ 3 ]. Some of these flavonoids have been demonstrated to inhibit nephrotoxicity because of its strong antioxidant activity [ 20 ].
Alchornea cordifolia has also been reported to contain tannins and tannins are known to offer protection against nephrotoxicity [ 21 ]. It is possible that these constituents offered protection to the treated animals in the present study. Alkaline phosphatase ALPGamma glutamyl transpeptidase GGTalbumin, globulin, bilirubin and total protein were the other biochemical parameters analyzed. Analysis of these parameters is important since there are several reports of liver toxicity related to the use of medicinal plant products [ 22 ].
These parameters did not differ in the treated and the vehicle-treated groups, indicating that Alchornea cordifolia caused no adverse effect cordifoolia the hepatic alcyornea renal systems. At a higher dose of the extract, it was observed that there were degenerations in the liver suggesting early signs of liver cell injury. This type of liver injury is however known to be reversible upon withdrawal of the toxicant allowing the liver cells to regenerate.
This early stage of liver injury may not necessarily reflect in elevation of liver enzymes. This may be intriguing, but the extract probably contains several components with different pharmacological actions.
The proportion of specific toxicants may be increased at high doses. Though the slight liver damage detected in the histopathology studies was not alvhornea with corresponding elevation of liver transaminases, the potential toxicity of the extract especially at high doses cannot be ignored.
Though this appears to be much lower than the dosages used in the present study, observation of potential liver damage in mice observed previously and the fact that dosages in herbal remedies are never precise due to non- standardization, call for caution in the routine use of the plant. The results of the study indicate that though the ethanolic leaf extract of Alchornea cordifolia is relatively non-toxic to the haematological and renal systems, it is potentially hepatotoxic in rats if administered at high doses.
Though these findings cannot be directly extrapolated to man alcnornea view of possible species differences and possible differences in metabolic activation, the present results suggest that caution should be taken in the use of the plant product especially at high doses.
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