Apesar de Alouatta guariba clamitans apresentar ampla distribuição na Mata Atlântica, do rio Doce (ES) ao rio Camaquã (RS) e a oeste até o norte da Argentina. The social group of the brown howler monkey, Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, is typically small (2–12 individuals), with one or two adult males, and. Adult females are covered in dark brown or reddish brown hair. A latitudinal color gradient occurs in the subspecies Alouatta guariba clamitans. Males tend to be.

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Biodiversity and Conservation, 10 8: The sensitivity analysis also demonstrates that adult mortality has one of the highest impacts on clamiitans population.

In the epidemics that occurred in Argentina betweenseveral outbreaks affecting humans and howler monkeys Alouatta spp were reported, highlighting the importance of this disease in the context of conservation medicine and public health policies.

Contact with and transmission of virus through an external environmental source – To estimate this parameter value, we noted that the YF shows a cycle with a minimum of approximately 14 years 5, days between outbreaks as reviewed by Alouztta et al.

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species

El Ateneo, Buenos Aires, Argentina. In the current context, this analysis was used to uncover particularly sensitive parameters that alouattw significantly alter the gyariba and conclusions derived from the model. Dispersal rates between populations are represented in Fig. Two complementary modelling tools were used to evaluate brown howler population dynamics in the presence of the disease: There could be a complex interplay between inbreeding and disease Spielman et al.

Oficina realizada em novembro de em Orlando, Florida, Estados Unidos.

Pre-susceptible state – We assume that all newly-born individuals become susceptible to YF immediately after birth, except in cases when a mother has recovered from infection with the pathogen.

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Rubbing plays an important role in intersexual and intrasexual dominance interactions and in aggressive and territorial behavior. Therefore, the probability of acquiring the pathogen from an external environmental source is simply the reciprocal of the inter-epidemic interval e. A Primatologia no Brasil – 3. For example, they often make loud vocalizations that alert group members of approaching predators. Therefore, in order to identify the importance of this variable in the modelling process, we set minimum and maximum values of encounter rates as 1: Livro de Resumos do Influence of seasonality, group size and presence of a congener on activity patterns of howler monkeys.

Initial population size n – According to a best guess the population of Misiones could be around individuals Holzmann et al. They spend most of their time in the upper canopy, and monkeys often travel to find seasonally available food like fruit. There are no specific references to support these population numbers and were based on the field experience of researchers Agostini et al. These animals show acute forms of the disease, with severe clinical evolution and high mortality CrockettSallis et al.

Conservation and population status of the brown howling monkey Alouatta fusca clamitans in Argentina. Trophic niche overlap in syntopic Alouatta guariba clamitans and Alouatta caraya.

Southern brown howler

Brown howlers form multi-male, multi-female groups; single-male, multi-female groups; and single-male, single-female groups. Metapopulation simulation – Clamitnas to the model, YF does not impact all fragments equally Fig. The role of monkeys, mosquitoes and humans in the occurrence of a yellow fever outbreak in a fragmented landscape in South Brazil: Outbreak of yellow fever in brown howlers. Folia Primatologica78 4: Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas.

Considering the lack of information about YF dynamics in New World NHP, our main goal was to apply modelling tools to better understand YF transmission dynamics among endangered brown howler monkey Alouatta guariba clamitans populations in northeastern Argentina.

Using calls to assess the strength of rival groups helps reduce direct physical confrontation. Infectious state – Infectious period – We evaluated two alternative ways to estimate the infectious period parameter. The alpha male usually monopolizes all guadiba females and sires all young.

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Body mass in comparative primatology.

Dental disorders in brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) maintained in captivity.

Specifically, changing the baseline values for the incubation latent period of the pathogen and the infectious period lead to only very small impacts on population outcome. A group of nine experts in different fields primate ecology, eco-epidemiology, mosquito ecology and virology dedicated themselves to gathering, systematising and discussing all available data and information on brown howlers and YF in the Atlantic Forest. Am J Phys Anthropol. In other words, Central and South America.

Fruit consumption depends on location and can be a significant part the brown howler diet depending guaruba availability. Dlamitans an alternative for the sensitivity analysis, we included the extrinsic incubation period in the mosquito MondetJohansson et al.

American Journal of Primatology69 Brown howlers are hunted for meat in some human populations. Dispersal between populations was estimated and modelled. Sympatry between Alouatta caraya and Alouatta clamitans and the rediscovery of free-ranging potential hybrids in southern Brazil. With a constant encounter rate but a higher transmission rate, the frequency of outbreaks and the probability that the population will go extinct, increases significantly Fig.

Neotropical living in the southern part of the New World. Population density of primates in a large fragment of the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. In our metamodel, population viability was predicted using the Vortex, while the disease epidemiological dynamics were simulated using Outbreak.