Army Alpha Examination; U.S. Army Alpha Intelligence Test The Army Alpha  was developed shortly after the United States entered World War I by an. Army Alpha and Army Beta intelligence testing were crucial in assessing and classifying individual soldiers during World War I. This testing. The correlation of Army Alpha with academic marks in high schools and military academies yields an appreciably higher correlation for the latter group.
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Intelevence purpose of the Alpha and Beta versions of the test in was to determine which of the recent military draftees in the United States were candidates for officer training and which were unfit for service. For example, Goldthwaite Dorr reported that Lieutenant Colonel Schmitter, commander of the Base Hospital at Camp Lee, while recognizing very clearly the narrow limitations of the usefulness of the [intelli- gence] test, and the extreme caution with which it ought to be used, alphq the danger of laying down any hard and fast rules based upon it as to ability for military service, nevertheless regards it as well worth the time and expense and a system which ought to be used.
Men whose mental inferiority justifies their recommendation for development battalionspecial service organization, rejection, or discharge. Very inferior in- telligence, but considered fit for regular service.
Rather, Yerkes found himself constantly struggling to convince both company commanders and members of the higher echelons that his tests pro- vided information pertinent to their immediate concerns. Whereas before this point the contact between Yerkes’s psychologists and the military, as we have seen, had been relatively informal and the psychologists had predicated their decisions as much on what they assumed as on what they knew the army wanted, by August Surgeon General Gorgas intslegence mem- bers of the Office of the Chief of Staff and the Adjutant General’s Office had begun to take a keen interest in the examining program and what it might or might not be able to accomplish.
At age level 9, in contrast, they were required intelegencee give the date, arrange inteleggence weights, make change, repeat four digits reversed, use three words in a sentence, intelegencr find rhymes. He then, under military discipline, follows directions to the best of his ability. Thinking with Eyes and Hands,” Knowledge and Society: Bingham, “Report of Company Commanders,” file For each, there is a relatively complete run of their year-by-year efficiency reports from the time they entered the service up to Studies in the Sociology of Culture Past and Present,6: This was more obviously the case with the military, which required enormous concessions from Yerkes and his testers before it would seriously consider adopting their pro- gram.
Reconceiving the examina- tion entirely, the committee decided to develop multiple forms of a forty-five-minute multiple-choice group examination, to be administered to all recruits for the purpose of identifying the exceptionally superior as well as the inferior. Atwell did a small study on the relationship of scores and errors based on the results of administration of the “Army Alpha”. At the same time that the army was manifesting this enormous support for intelligence testing, members of the Chief of Alphx Office began to worry about the intelegenxe of the entire endeavor.
But the Vineland committee designed an instrument where technology was substituted for professional skill and where only quantitative data of the most minimal sort—a single number—would be generated.
Demonstrator then draws a finger. Learning Civics Chapter 5: The Beta test was intended for illiterate draftees. Like books, articles, hest public presentations, objects can act as mediators between the realms of high ideas and those of everyday life.
Finally, a large number of officers hostile to the testing program, while conceding that the tests did indeed measure intelligence, argued that intelligence alone was not sufficient to make either a good officer or a good enlisted man.
His inteelgence has never interfered with his ‘hiking’ qualities that I know of. It is undoubtedly the case that individuals sometimes drew conclusions about the intellectual capabilities of their fellow soldiers. Williams or Kurt Danziger, have painted a much different picture, one in which the consumers of knowledge products have a profound influence on producers.
How intlegence you define intelligence? The result was a constant ebb and flow, in which both the psychologists and the military oscillated between accommodating and resisting change in the process of negotiating a modus vivendi acceptable to both and a domain of knowledge that both could deem valid and useful.
For more infor- mation see Yerkes, ed. Things changed over the course of the war. Spring, “Psychologists and allpha War: Testimony by other officers can also be found in this file. Also I do not think there is any demand from the army for tests of intellect of officers beyond what they have already by college selection and their own exams.
Yerkes’ Army Intelligence Tests | Chapter 6: The Nature of Learning | Νέα Μάθηση | Neamathisi
Yerkes outlined seven purposes for administering the “Army Alpha” test: Although the individual tests were based on commonly used methods, economy of time, security, measurement across a broad spectrum, and adaptability to group use were features not particularly salient within civilian testing. In this first set of assessments the answers to both questions were affirmative, and on 16 January psychological examining was officially extended to the entire army.
In these next two examples, examinees were required to complete the sentence by selecting one of the four possible answers.
There were definite limits to this process of adaptation, however, because the standards and practices of their own profession bound the psychologists as well. Robert Yerkes and his members asked the question, “How should the results of widely distributed testing of this sort be interpreted?
Giving synonyms or antonyms: The “Army Alpya origin was based on intelligence tests created by Alfred Binet. Psychology exploited this belief and gained entrance into the army, but, as we have seen, serious problems then arose.
Revising the Test | Facing History and Ourselves
Although psy- chological testing was rarely used as the sole determinant of an individual’s fate, there is no question that some of the decisions reached by army discharge boards were the result of the over 7, recommendations for discharge and 28, for transfer forwarded to those boards on the basis of the army tests. Terman, The Measurement of Intelligence Boston: At the very least, Progressivism’s effects on the military were to predispose officers, when confronted with problems not amenable to traditional army solutions, to look toward techniques that could be deemed “scientific” as the answer to their needs.
Concerning the military commissions, Yerkes explained in a letter to Surgeon General Gorgas armu July, “It is important, if these kinds of work are to be continued and rendered substantially useful to the Government, that they be henceforth directed by a military officer”: Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries the American military evinced virtually no interest in “intelligence,” at least in “intelligence” as connoting the cognitive powers of the mind.