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Identify the word and explain how you know its stress pattern changed. The ancients are livto pains to rationalize it, and the moderns finesse it by calling the paradigm a future perfect. The history of the present indicative is characterized by irregularities arising under sound change and gravitating into regular patterns under analogical pressure Chapter 6.

Besides the third, the less famous fourth is also informative.

First, the verbs from Latin perfects settle into a three-class system not from Latin a e i as in Italian and Old Spanishbut from Latin a u i. Even a seemingly simple extralinguistic criterion such as number of speakers can be problematic.

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One key fact on display here is that Latin passives were periphrastic in form throughout the perfectum system. How might this Italian outcome be explained? Each of these cognate sets diverges in some way from the outcomes predicted by the sound changes discussed in Chapter 4.

The change to short perfects apparently had two points of departure. Also surviving are such professional manuals as De architectura by Vitruvius fl.

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The Romance personal pronoun system also has a conservative trait: The Institutio Oratoria of Quintilian d. There is, however, a tradition of grammatical and rhetorical writings that comment explicitly on the Latin of their time.

Why would such a paradigm be rejected? At what stage does English get oyster? The next two sections examine in more detail how the mid vowels develop.

Romance Languages: A Historical Introduction

There are far fewer examples of paradigm disleveling than of leveling. An example from the first century bce is: You will see a contrast between intervocalic and protected postconsonantal position. Observe these Latin words and their Italian reflexes: The largest class of strong perfects to survive in Old French is the sigmatic type, which even gains new members in Popular Latin e.

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But [ej] remains intact if word-final. An inscription, on the other hand, is an artifact that may be physically damaged, but otherwise does not change over time.

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ora What processes discussed so far can you identify in the following derivation? Second, the discrepancies in the French data are only apparent. Sicilian has over twice as many speakers as Sardinian, yet Sicilian is usually considered a dialect and Sardinian a language.

English has adopted thousands of words from French, including the ones below. The relative chronology of sound changes is again the key to the voicing contrast in these examples: Have in h behaves like a main verb and in i like an auxiliary. The Orthographia Gallica3 even states explicitly: This page intentionally left blank Romance languages Ti Alkire and Carol Rosen trace the changes that led from collo Latin vowel quantity is given if needed.

As early as the first century bce, a short third plural form appears in the Rhetorica ad Herennium in a passage deliberately exemplifying informal style: In reported speech Latin used infinitives and participles to express the main verbs of the reported discourse.

Metaphony operates in both kinds of imperfect subjunctive stem.