Leon Festinger and James Carlsmith proposed the term cognitive dissonance which is Every individual has his or her Festinger, L. and Carlsmith, J. M. ( ). The following article by Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith is the classic study on Reprinted from Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, , 58, . Forced compliance theory is a paradigm that is closely related to cognitive dissonance theory. Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith () conducted an experiment entitled “Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance”. This study.

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The content of what the S said before the girl made the remark that her cwrlsmith told her it was boring. While the S was working on these tasks the E sat, with a stop watch in his hand, busily making notations on a sheet of paper. Twenty Dollar condi tion. The reliabilities of these ratings, that is, the correlations between the two independent raters, ranged from.

It has the advantage of being testable by scientific means i. Since these derivations are stated in detail by FestingerCh. In other words, he could tell himself that a short life filled with smoking and sensual pleasures is better than a long life devoid of such joys.

All experimental S s in both One Dollar and Twenty Dollar conditions were asked, after this explanation, to return the money they had [p. Putting these 11 in exception, the 60 remaining responses are the following:.

The major results of the experiment are summarized in Table 1 which lists, separately for each of the three experimental conditions, the average rating which the S s gave at the end of each question on the interview.

But nevertheless, the possibility exists that the S s n the One Dollar condition may have improvised more. In this way, he would be decreasing the importance of the dissonant cognition smoking is bad for one’s health.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory | Simply Psychology

In conclusion, people, when persuaded to lie without being given enough justification, will perform a task by convincing themselves of the falsehood, rather than telling a lie.

Because of the desirability of investigating this possible alternative explanation, we recorded on a tape recorder the conversation between each S and the girl. Conflict, decision, and dissonance Vol. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The 71 subjects were informed that the experiment focuses on the “Measures of Performance.


The products included an automatic coffee maker, an electric sandwich grill, an automatic toaster, and a portable radio.

Cognitive dissonance

The content of what the S said after the girl made the above-mentioned remark. Brehm was the first to investigate the relationship between dissonance and decision-making. This question was included because there was a chance that differences might emerge. The experimenter E then came in, introducing himself to the S and, together, they festinget into the laboratory room where the E said:.

In an intriguing experiment, Festinger and Carlsmith asked carlsmitth to perform a series of dull tasks such as turning pegs in a peg board for an hour.

A positive answer was given and the experimenter again thanked the subject and left. A rating of the amount of time in the discussion that the S spent discussing the tasks as opposed to going off into irrelevant things. In short, when an S was induced, by offer of reward, to say something contrary to his private opinion, this private opinion tended to change so as to correspond more closely with what he had said. Languages Magyar Edit links. Two S s both in the One Dollar condition told the girl that they had been hired, caflsmith the experiment was really boring but they were supposed to say it was fun.

From our point of view the experiment festinyer hardly started. The third asks whether festibger subject finds the 19959 important, again using the scale of 0 to Let us consider a person who privately holds opinion “X” but has, as a result of pressure brought to bear on him publicly stated that he believes “not X.

Search over articles on psychology, science, and experiments. If you took the job you would miss your loved ones; if you turned the job down, you would pine for the beautiful streams, mountains, and valleys. The observed opinion change is greater than for persons who only hear the speech or for persons who read a prepared speech with emphasis solely on execution and manner of delivery The authors of these two studies explain their results mainly in terms of festingr rehearsal and thinking up new arguments.


Actually this finding by Kelman is consistent with the theory we will outline below but, for a number of reasons is not conclusive.

Forced compliance theory

This prediction has been tested experimentally:. Leon Festinger and James Carlsmith conducted a study on cognitive dissonance investigating on the cognitive consequences of forced compliance. The present experiment was listed as a two-hour experiment dealing with “Measures of Performance. This is probably because dissonance would be caused if we spent a great effort to achieve something and then evaluated it negatively.

Group B was given introduction by an experimenter, presenting the tasks in an interesting and enjoyable tone. It also seems to be the case that we value most highly those goals fdstinger items which have required considerable effort to achieve.

If we put effort into a task which we have chosen to carry out, and the task turns out badly, we experience dissonance. Why this might have been the case is, of course, not immediately apparent. These 11 S s were, of course, run through the total experiment anyhow and the experiment was explained to them afterwards. With no further introduction or explanation the S was shown the first task, which involved putting 12 spools onto a tray, emptying the tray, refilling it with spools, and so on. Retrieved Dec 21, from Explorable.

Two derivations from this theory are tested here. At the close of the interview the S was asked what he thought the experiment was about and, following this, was asked directly whether or not he was suspicious of anything and, if so, what he was suspicious of. The average rating in this condition is carlsmitj.

These was another group of subjects – “Group B”, however, who were introduced to the tasks by an associate of the experimenter.

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