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Episodic excursions of low-mass protostars on the Hertzsprung—Russell diagram. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. However, some of the galaxies have optical diameters in excess of this, uram an aperture correction needs to be applied. Wiley-Blackwell are not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting materials supplied by the authors.


It may be that the conversion factor is instead a function of a parameter such as gas surface density or metallicity Tacconi et al. The blue circle shows the central position of the arcsec beam, and the orange circle the offset position, located three quarters of a beam from the centre for G, G, G, G and G, the offset was taken one full beam away from the centre; see Section 4.

Furthermore, even though Catinella et al. So far, we have performed offset pointings for 25 galaxies, that met the requirements listed above see Fig. The stellar mass and redshift ranges also ensure that we recover the total CO line flux of the galaxies with a single pointing of the IRAM m telescope, and that a single CO luminosity to conversion factor is likely adequate.

The result is shown in Fig. To test the impact of galaxy morphology on the molecular mass fraction, we plot in Fig. The models predict a significantly smaller range in than seen in the literature compilation. Finally, our observations provide stringent upper limits on molecular gas fraction in the case of CO non-detections. We note that the same sharp drop in cold gas content is not seen as a function of stellar mass.


The results are shown in equally populated bins, each containing 37 galaxies.

However, such a prescription has iarm to be observationally or theoretically validated. Details of the GASS survey design, target selection and observing procedures are given in Catinella et al. This sample therefore provides us with a complete picture of how the cold atomic gas relates to other properties such as stellar mass, luminosity, stellar surface mass density or colour. Intriguingly, atomic gas irma in the minority of galaxies that are above threshold and that have a significant cold gas content.

We assign to the non-detections either the value set by the iiram limit red circlesor simply set them to zero green squares. In this paper, we present CO luminosities and molecular hydrogen masses for the first galaxies. For the remaining objects, we recover the total flux by adding a irqm offset pointing see Section 4. The data are reduced with the class software.

Nevertheless, most of the samples did not meet all of the criteria listed above that would allow for accurate scaling laws to be derived; some samples were biased towards a particular galaxy type e.

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The second band is tuned to a frequency of For example, Sage found that is independent of morphology, just like we find to be independent of concentration index. With a single tuning of the receiver at a frequency of Fluxes are measured by integrating over the region identified though this process, and the flux ratio between offset and central pointings is used to determine an appropriate aperture correction for each galaxy using the technique described in Section 4.


We used equation 3 and Fig. GASS also aims at studying ifam galaxies iran are transitioning between a blue, star-forming state and a red passive state and vice versa. Furthermore, it has since been shown that the mass—metallicity relation is even more fundamental Tremonti et al. A significant fraction of this observed scatter can be attributed to measurement errors and inhomogeneities in the sample. The main results presented in this paper are overall qualitatively similar to some earlier observations.

In other words, low-mass galaxies are given a higher weight in irsm computation of the mean scaling relations, because these galaxies are under-represented in the COLD GASS sample compared to a volume-limited sample. Citing articles via Web of Science No other selection criteria on colour, morphology or spectral properties for example were applied.

The SDSS r -band images are convolved to the resolution of the UV imaging before SE xtractor is used to calculate magnitudes in consistent apertures, therefore ensuring that measurements in different bands represent similar physical regions of the galaxies. COLD GASS will provide a definitive, unbiased census of the partition of condensed baryons in the local Universe into stars, atomic and molecular gas in galaxies covering over 2 orders of magnitude in luminosity.

View large Download slide. As we will describe, existing data sets do not, in general, meet all of these conditions.

The mean molecular gas mass fraction averaged over galaxies with detections and non-detections of the CO line is a roughly constant function of stellar mass, but a decreasing function of stellar mass surface density and concentration index.