In , J.C.R. Licklider published his groundbreaking paper called “Man- Computer Symbiosis.” Licklider was both a psychologist and a. J.C.R. Licklider (). Excerpts from “Man-computer Symbiosis”. IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics, volume HFE-1, pp (now IEEE). J.C.R. Licklider may well be one of the most influential people in the history of In two extraordinary papers, Man-Computer Symbiosis () and The.

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He likened it to the symbiotic relationships found in nature, such as the way the insect Blastophaga grossorun pollinates the fig tree. The symbioiss thing to face is that we shall not store all the technical and scientific papers in computer memory.

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Another Look at Man-Computer Symbiosis

Published memory will be “read-only” memory. In general, it will carry out the routinizable, clerical operations that fill the intervals between decisions. Cybernetics History of human—computer interaction Texts related to the history of the Internet Transhumanism documents.

Roberts, “Computer versus chess-player,” Scientific Americanvol.

Information storage and retrieval. Recent developments like the Apple Watch and research on implantable wireless devices Borton et al. The part concludes with a statement of the functioning of a potential computer as performing diagnosispattern-matchingand relevance-recognizing. Aristotle said that formal knowledge begins with the establishment of definitions and proceeds to an analysis of various levels of cause-and-effect.

At least half of the problem of memory organization appears to reside in the storage procedure. Prerequisites for the achievement of the effective, cooperative association include developments in computer time sharing, in memory components, in memory organization, in programming languages, and in input and output equipment.

We may store the parts that can be summarized most succinctly-the quantitative parts and the reference citations-but not the whole. Selfridge, “Pandemonium, a paradigm for learning,” Proc. In addition he identified two reasons for Licklider to have considered such a concept as a symbiotic human computer relationship at all as beneficial, to be firstly, for it might bring about an advantage emerging from the use of a computer, such that there are similarities with the necessary methodology of such a use i.


It will be introduced into the computer already structured. Two or three years ago, it appeared that automatic recognition of sizeable vocabularies would not be achieved for ten or fifteen years; that it would have to await much further, gradual accumulation of knowledge of acoustic, phonetic, linguistic, and psychological processes in speech communication. In some instances, particularly in large computer-centered information and control systems, the human operators are responsible mainly for functions that it proved infeasible to automate.

More than fifty years after Licklider’s seminal article was published defining a goal of creating a human-computer symbiosis, we are at the threshold or turning point of achieving that goal. As a necessary pre-requisite of human-computer symbiosis, Licklider conceived of a thing known as the Thinking centre. R Licklider coined the phrase “man-computer symbiosis”. Speculation about a deeper integration of man and machine has been occurring for more than 50 years.

The main suggestion conveyed by the findings just described is that the operations that fill most of the time allegedly devoted to technical thinking are operations that can be performed more effectively by machines than by men. Deloitte, “Man and machine will unite to shape the future of AI,” Quartz, https: This discussion includes a statement on the currently understood definition of the term computeras a wide class of calculating, data-processing, and information-storage-and-retrieval machines c.

The course of the computation may be conditional upon results obtained during the computation, but all the alternatives must be foreseen in advance. True, they usually know something about directions in which to travel or lines along which to work, but few start out with precisely formulated itineraries. It soon became apparent that the main thing I did was to keep records, and the project would have become an infinite regress if the keeping of records had been carried through in the detail envisaged in the initial plan.


It is to bring computing machines effectively into processes of thinking that must go on in “real time,” time that moves too fast to permit using computers in conventional ways.

Print this record Show this as PDF file. It would shmbiosis unrewarding to develop the language before there are any computing machines capable of responding meaningfully to it.

J.C.R. Licklider (1915-1990)

Will the symbiotic organism remain a person in the sense the term is used today? Licklider’s “Man-Computer Symbiosis,” Trie memory is so called by its originator, Fredkin [10], because it is designed to facilitate retrieval of information and because the branching storage structure, when developed, resembles a tree.

The properties just described do not include all the desired ones, but they lick,ider computer storage into resonance with human operators and their predilection to designate things by naming or pointing. There are in fact several hurdles that stand between the nonsymbiotic present and the anticipated symbiotic future.

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Nevertheless, certain genotypic differences in capability between men and computers do stand out, and they man-compuer a bearing on the nature of possible man-computer symbiosis and the potential value of achieving it. Nurmikko, “An implantable wireless neural interface for recording cortical circuit dynamics in moving primates,” Journal of Neural Engineering, Volume 10, Number 2, at URL http: In large part, the interest stems from realization that one can hardly take a military commander or a corporation president away from his work to teach him to type.

However, there are several organizations that would happily undertake to develop an automatic recognize for such a vocabulary on a five-year basis.

He could sketch out the format of a table roughly and let the computer shape it up with precision.